Guinea pig history
The Latin name for guinea pigs is Cavia Porcellus. So I bet you want to know the history of these popular pets, well keep reading and find out.
They are classed as being rodents, you are probably thinking eeek rodents. But guinea pigs are lovely creatures and are nothing like wild rats. They are very clean, sociable and friendly.
It was said that domestication occurred up to 7000 years ago in the Andes mountains, where they were mainly located and were most probably used as an important food source. It was then in the 15th century, when the Spanish invaded Peru where the Incan people lived, that they were amazed to have found these unique animals that they had never witnessed before. In places like Peru and Ecuador, guinea pigs as pets are far from the majority of minds. Rather, being a food delicacy called cuy and were used in religious ceremonies and still are today, because it is said that they could heal and help the dying of people. They were such big religious symbols in this part of the world, that statues had been found in archaeological digs.
Guinea pigs do stretch back a very long period of time. 18 million years ago to be precise. In 2003, remains were found in Venezuela, of a massive guinea pig measuring a staggering 9-foot long, this was dated back to about 8 million years ago. More recent ancestors from the wild looked a little different to how the domestic ones appear, being grey, to help blend into their environment, from predators.
The wild version called cavy, is smaller and can be quite vicious. Today our friends measure 9 to 11 inches long and can weigh anywhere from 1 to 2 kilograms. Some maybe weighing over 2kg.
It’s common that now some of us humans, even like to compete in shows with them, in terms of how good they look.
Coming to Europe
In the 1600s, Europe started bringing them in, to be pets. In England even Queen Elizabeth 1st had one as a pet. Remains had been found in Belgium and South America to prove the fact of domestication from the 16 and 17th century. Also in artwork from various periods of history, they had been painted into scenes.
It was thanks to the Dutch that England first gained these brilliant creatures. It was the wealthiest of society that actually kept them. By the 1900s British immigrants had travelled to the rest of America, to introduce to the people.
In the medical field of the 18th century, they were so important. They actually were quite similar to the make up of humans and therefore were used and along the way amazing discoveries and solutions were made. Vitamin C was one of them, as well as adrenaline and tuberculosis bacterium. It did not end there, new heart valves, blood transfusions, kidney dialysis, diphtheria and TB vaccinations.
To finish it all of, also what was discovered thanks to them, was the all so important antibiotics, anticoagulants, asthma medications and beta blockers. So in this period of history and still now guinea pigs were very vital to the medical landscape, with things that we rely on a lot today. Scientists and the Nobel prizes recongnise them in what has been gained.
Used as a food source
As mentioned they were and still are used today as a food source in a lot of areas in South America. It’s simply because they are easier to look after than other livestock and can be fed on left over veggies from their kitchens. They reproduce a lot quicker than common farm animals. Also, the fact that they are high in protein. In the western world we know them as pets, but its just a way of life and culture in South America.
What’s in the name?
There is no definitive reason on the first part of the name (Guinea). A rumour was that in the 1600s the South American country of Guyana, which was a dutch colony at the time, had guinea pigs, that guinea was derived from the name of Guyana. Maybe because it was the cost of one guinea pig in British money being a guinea, which makes a lot of sense to, it was a substantial amount of money back then.
Pig is quite simply that they sounded like little pigs squeaking about and the bum also looking similar in appearance.
Let’s talk ancestry and relatives
Guinea pigs are in the same group of caviomorpha, this includes a certain similar number of animals that include chinchillas, capybaras and porcupines to name a few on top of over 200 other species. Current wild relatives and ancestors behave in more untamed ways.
Guinea pigs have such rich history and have been important for many things. They sure are very special creatures.
Thank you for reading, please feel free to leave a comment below and I will reply back as soon as possible.